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UN Sustainable Development goals (also in short SDGs)
SDGs were worked out by the UN and already accepted from the European Union in May 2019:
Following countries are close to meet targets (dark colour), the lighter the less (Central Africa)
· 1 No poverty 10 Reducing inequalities
· 2 Zero hunger 11 Sustainable cities and communities
· 3 Good health and well-being for people 12 Responsible consumpption and production
· 4 Quality education 13 Climate action
· 5 Gender equality 14 Life below water
· 6 Clean water and sanitation 15 Life on land
· 7 Affordable and clean energy 16 Peace, justice and strong institutions
· 8 Decent work and economic growth 17 Partnerships for the goals
· 9 Industry, Innovation, and Infrastructure
1. No Poverty: End poverty in all its forms everywhere
Extrema poverty has been cut by more than half since 1990. Still, around 1 in 10 people live on less than the target figure of int. $ 1.25 per day. A very low poverty threshold is justified by highlighting the need of those people who are worst off. SDG 1 is to end extreme poverty globally by 2030.
2. Zero Hunger: End hunger, achieve food security and improved nutrition and promote sustainable agriculture!
Goal 2 states that by 2030 we should end hunger and all forms of malnutrition. This would be accomplished by doubling agricultural productivity and incomes of small-scale food producers (especially women and indigenous peoples), by ensuring sustainable food, and by progressively improving land and soil quality. Agriculture is the single largest employer in the world, providing livelihoods for 40% of the global population. It is the largest source of income for poor rural households. Women make up about 43% of the agricultural labour force in developing countries, and over 50% in parts of Asia and Africa. However, women own only 20% of the land.
3. Good Health - well-being: Ensure healthy lives, promote well-being for all ages.
Significant strides have been made in increasing life expectancy and reducing some of the common killers associated with child and maternal mortality. Between 2000 and 2016, the worldwide under-five mortality rate decreased by 47 percent (from 78 deaths per 1,000 live births to 41 deaths per 1,000 live births). Still, the number of children dying under age five is extremely high: 5.6 million in 2016 alone. Newborns account for a growing number of these deaths, and poorer children are at the greatest risk of under-5 mortality due to a number of factors. SDG Goal 3 aims to reduce under-five mortality to at least as low as 25 per 1,000 live births. But if current trends continue, more than 60 countries will miss the SDG neonatal mortality target for 2030. About half of these countries would not reach the target even by 2050.
4. Quality Education: Ensure inclusive and equitably quality education and promote lifelong learning opportunities for all.
Major progress has been made in access to education, specifically at the primary level, for both boys and girls. The number of out-of-school children has almost halved from 112 million in 1997 to 60 million in 2014. Still, at least 22 million children in 43 countries will miss out on pre-primary education unless the rate of progress doubles.
5. Gender Equality: Achieve gender equality and empower all woman and girls
According to the UN, "gender equality is not only a fundamental human right, but a necessary foundation for a peaceful, prosperous and sustainable world."
6. Clean Water and Sanitation: Ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all.
SDG6 has eight targets and 11 indicators that will be used to monitor progress toward the targets. Most are to be achieved by the year 2030. One is targeted for 2020
7. Affordable and Clean Energy: Affordable and clean energy
Ensure access to affordable, reliable, sustainable and modern energy for all. Access to affordable and reliable energy while increasing the share of renewable energy in the global energy mix. This would involve improving energy efficiency and enhancing international cooperation to facilitate more open access to clean energy, technology and more investment in clean energy infrastructure.
8. Decent Work and Economic Growth:
Promote sustained, inclusive and sustainable economic growth, full and productive employment and decent work for all. World Pension Council development economists have argued that twin considerations of long-term economic growth and infrastructure investment were not prioritized enough. The fact they were designated as the number 8 and number 9 objective respectively was considered a rather "mediocre ranking [which] defies common sense".
9. Industry, Innovation, and Infrastructure
Build resilient infrastructure, promote inclusive and sustainable industrialization, and foster innovation. Manufacturing is a major source of employment. In 2016, the least developed countries had less "manufacturing value added per capita". The figure for Europe and North America amounted to US$4,621, compared to about $100 in the least developed countries.
10. Sustainable Cities and Communities:
Make cities and human settlements inclusive, safe, resilient, and sustainable. The target for 2030 is to ensure access to safe and affordable. The indicator named to measure progress toward this target is the proportion of urban population living in slums or informal settlements. Between 2000 and 2014, the proportion fell from 39 percent to 30 percent. However, the absolute number of people living in slums went from 792 million in 2000 to an estimated 880 million in 2014. Movement from rural to urban areas has accelerated as the population has grown and better housing alternatives are available.
11. Reducing inequalities within and among countries.
Target 10.1 is to "sustain income growth of the bottom 40 per cent of the population at a rate higher than the national average". This goal, known as 'shared prosperity', is complementing SDG 1, the eradication of extreme poverty, and it is relevant for all countries in the world.
12. Responsible Consumption and Production
The targets of Goal include using eco friendly production methods and reducing the amount of waste. By 2030, national recycling rates should increase, as measured in tons of material recycled. Further, companies should adopt sustainable practices and publish sustainability reports.
13. Climate Action:
Take urgent action to combat climate change and its impacts by regulating emissions and promoting developments in renewable energy. The TUN Travel discussions and negotiations identified the links between the post-2015 SDG process and the process that concluded in Addis Ababa in July 2015 and the COP 21 Climate Change conference in Paris in December 2015.
14. Life Below Water:
Conserve and sustainably use the oceans, seas and marine resources for sustainable development.
Sustainable Development Goal 13 aims “to conserve and sustainably use the oceans, seas and marine resources for sustainable development.
15. Life On Land
Protect, restore and promote sustainable use of terrestrial ecosystems, sustainably manage forests, combat desertification, halt and reverse land degradation and halt biodiversity loss.
This goal articulates targets for preserving biodiversity of forest, desert, and mountain eco-systems, as a percentage of total land mass. Achieving a "land degradation-neutral world" can be reached by restoring degraded forests and land lost to drought and flood.
16. Peace, Justice, and Strong Institutions
Promote peaceful and inclusive societies for sustainable development, provide access for justice for all and build effective, accountable and inclusive institutions at all levels."
Reducing criminal tasks are clear global goals. The International Community values peace and justice and calls for stronger judicial systems that will enforce laws and work toward a more peaceful and just society. Partnerships for the Goals
17. Partnerships for the goals
Strengthen the means of implementation and revitalize the global partnership for sustainable development. Increasing international cooperation is seen as vital to achieving each of the 16 previous goals. Goal 17 is included to assure that countries and organizations cooperate instead of compete. Developing multi-stakeholder partnerships to share knowledge, expertise, technology, and financial support is seen as critical to overall success of the SDGs.